Environmental Issues In India

The environment is the surroundings in which we live. It includes all the biotic and abiotic components that provide a healthy living. The environment is the key existence on earth that helped life to flourish and grow over thousands of decades. Be it air, water, or food, the environment provides all the natural essentials that help us to survive. The entire life support system depends on the wellbeing of all essential environmental factors.  But, the tremendous increase in population has led to a number of environmental issues, especially in India. Nonetheless, human activities have led to environmental degradation. This has started to create issues for the smooth existence of life. Some of the major environmental issues are:

      • Pollution
      • Deforestation
      • Solid wastes.
      • Global warming.

1.1.Pollution :

Any type of contamination of the natural environment that causes adverse change is pollution. Pollutants can damage the quality of air, water, land, and soil. The environment is facing issues of degradation because of the large quantities of waste generated. In fact, India faces major environmental issues in the form of different types of pollution.

      • Air Pollution
      • Water Pollution
      • Solid waste Pollution

1.1.1Air :

Air pollution in India is a serious and primary environmental issue. Fuelwood and biomass burning and gas emission from vehicles are the major problems that lead to air pollution. Vehicle emissions are worsened by fuel adulteration. Poor fuel combustion efficiencies from traffic congestion add to this. Likewise, harmful gases are subsequently emitted from different sources causing environmental contamination. This includes carbon monoxide, sulfur dioxide, lead, and nitrogen oxides.

Primary environmental issue-Air pollution
Air pollution in New Delhi

The importance of the atmosphere can be read here.https://awareearth.org/index.php/environment/17258/world-atmosphere-day/

1.1.2.Water :

The discharge of untreated sewage is the most important cause of water pollution in India. Ultimately, there is a large gap between the generation and treatment of domestic wastewater in India. The uncollected wastes accumulate in the urban areas causing unhygienic conditions. Agricultural runoff along the rivers and lakes are other sources of water pollution. Fertilizers and pesticides used in agriculture have been found in rivers, lakes, and groundwater. During monsoon, India’s water pollution problem is worsened by floods. Obviously, it washes and moves all sorts of solid garbage and contaminated soils into its rivers and wetlands.

 water pollution-another environmental issue
Water pollution on the banks of Yamuna

1.1.3.Noise :

Noise pollution results in hearing loss, cardiovascular effects, and an increased incidence of coronary artery disease in humans. In animals, noise can increase the risk of death by altering predator or prey detection. Furthermore, they can interfere with reproduction and navigation. This is another environmental issue that is mostly overlooked.


Vast areas covered with trees experienced deforestation to accommodate the increasing population. Regardless, this environmental issue has farfetched consequences. The specific causes of deforestation are agricultural practices, industrial development, and fuel requirements. This in turn causes a major threat to biodiversity. Soil erosion is another consequence in addition to this. As a result, the soil will become increasingly fragile. This will, for instance, leave the area more vulnerable to natural disasters such as landslides and floods. Besides, it leads to land degradation, flood, and change in climatic conditions.

environmental issue- deforestation
Deforestation at Dirang, Arunachal Pradesh- a major environmental issue

A little addition about deforestation:




Solid waste includes domestic, hazardous, and toxic wastes in general. It also includes biodegradable wastes, composite and recyclable materials. Such wastes generated are recklessly dumped on the streets in many cities. They are likewise dumped in landfills that are not properly managed. In the long run, this ends up polluting the air, soil, and underground water. Furthermore, such wastes have become significant sources of greenhouse emissions. Correspondingly, disease vectors will turn these areas into breeding sites.

Not to mention, learn how our country is heaped with garbage-



The atmosphere is filled with carbon dioxide and other air pollutants along with greenhouse gases. They absorb sunlight and solar radiation that have bounced off the earth’s surface. As a result, there is a gradual increase in atmospheric temperature. This temperature rise due to the greenhouse effect is known as global warming. Ultimately, the mass extinction of less tolerant species is the effect of these changes in the ecosystem.


 2.1. Improving air quality:

We can reduce air pollution by planting more trees, and recycling. In addition, reducing the use of private vehicles and choosing sustainable products will also help.

2.2.Proper water conservation:

Water gathering, and consequently groundwater revival, is to be made compulsory through law and holistic approach. Rainwater harvesting and sustainable water usage including improved irrigation methods are the basic steps of water conservation. More about disinfecting water to improve quality is given here:https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK234590/”>https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK234590/

2.3.Hazard management:

Our country creates large measures of waste including electronic, plastic, biomedical, etc. Many measures like  Swachh Bharat to Plastic Waste Management Rules 2016 were implemented to address the issue. E-Waste Management Rules along with Hazardous and Other Wastes Management  Rules were introduced likewise. These measures are, however, inadequate, to address the issue. A positive development was forbidding the usage of single-use plastic. Reusing plastic and other waste in the development of streets should be boosted. A vital foundation should be made for proficient and successful waste administration.

2.4.Conservation of biodiversity:

Hard steps are to be taken for preventing the disintegration of biodiversity. To protect backwoods and untamed life, all guaranteed actions should also be taken in a like manner. The productive use of assets can be implemented for compensatory afforestation. Effective measures also include increasing forest cover and restoring seagrasses. The use of agricultural cover crops to reduce the amount of CO2 in the atmosphere is another step. In addition, increasing marine protection measures will also help.

Awareness and adaptation of proper steps will help to lessen the environmental issues in India. Ultimately, these steps will help in the conservation of our environment. And, all these environmental issues can be reduced if we do our part. Thereby, we can ensure that the future generation will have a healthy environment to live in.

More about environmental issues are here in detail for the curious reader in you: https://www.europarl.europa.eu/RegData/etudes/BRIE/2019/637920/EPRS_BRI(2019)637920_EN.pdf” 

Leave a Comment