Ram Prasad Bismil(11 June 1897 – 19 December 1927) was an Indian revolutionary warrior and a true freedom fighter.
He struggled against British Imperialism and fought till end for India’s freedom. Not only but also he was a patriotic poet.
Who wrote poems in Hindi as well as Urdu using the pen names Ram, Agyat and Bismil. Besides, this he had also translated the books Catherine from English and Bolshevikon Ki Kartoot from Bengali.
Finally, he became popular with the last name “Bismil” only.
Ram Prasad Bismil was born at Shahjahanpur, in North-Western Provinces, British India. His father taught him Hindi Language and Urdu he learned from a Moulvi.
He was admitted to an English-language school, despite his father’s disapproval, and also joined the Arya Samaj in Shahjahanpur.
Contact with Somdev
As an 18-year-old student, Bismil read of the death sentence passed on Bhai Parmanand, a scholar and companion of Har Dayal.
At that time he was regularly attending the Arya Samaj Temple at Shahjahanpur daily, where Swami Somdev, a friend of Paramanand, was staying.
Angered by the sentence, Bismil composed a poem in Hindi titled Mera Janm (en: My Birth), which he showed to Somdev. This poem demonstrated a commitment to remove the British control over India.
Further, Bismil formed a revolutionary organisation called Matrivedi (Altar of Motherland) and contacted Genda Lal Dixit, who was a school teacher at Auraiya.
Dixit had contacts with some powerful dacoits of the state. Similarly, . like Bismil, Dixit had also formed an armed organisation of youths called Shivaji Samiti (named after Shivaji Maharaj).
The pair organised youths from the Etawah, Mainpuri, Agra and Shahjahanpur districts of United Province (now Uttar Pradesh) to strengthen their organisations.
On 28 January 1918, Bismil published a pamphlet titled Deshvasiyon Ke Nam Sandesh (A Message to Countrymen),
which he distributed along with his poem Mainpuri Ki Pratigya (Vow of Mainpuri).
As a result, Police was searching them as they were selling books proscribed by the U.P. Government in the Delhi Congress of 1918.
When he was planning another looting between Delhi and Agra, a police team arrived and firing started from both the sides. Bismil jumped into the Yamuna and swam underwater.
The police and his companions thought that he had died in the encounter. Dixit was arrested along with his other companions and was kept in Agra fort.
Further, on 1 November 1919 the Judiciary Magistrate of Mainpuri B. S. Chris announced the judgement against all accused and declared Dixit and Bismil as absconders.
Formation of Hindustan Republican Association
In February 1920, when all the prisoners in the Mainpuri conspiracy case were freed, Bismil returned home to Shahjahanpur.
Where he took the decision that he would not participate in revolutionary activities.
In 1921, Bismil was among the many people from Shahjahanpur who attended the Ahmedabad Congress. He had a seat on the dias, along with the senior congressman Prem Krishna Khanna, and the revolutionary Ashfaqulla Khan.
Further, Poorna Swaraj proposal which passed in the General Body meeting of Congress offered to him.
The people of U.P. were so much influenced by the furious speeches and verses of Bismil that they became hostile against British Raj.
In February 1922 some agitating farmers killed in Chauri Chaura by the police. The police station of Chauri Chaura was attacked by the people and 22 policemen were burnt alive.
Gandhi, without ascertaining the facts behind this incident, declared an immediate stop the non-co-operation movement without consulting any executive committee member of the Congress.
Bismil and his group of youths strongly opposed Gandhi in the Gaya session of Indian National Congress (1922). When Gandhi refused to rescind his decision, its then-president Chittranjan Das resigned.
In January 1923, the rich group of party formed a new Swaraj Party under the joint leadership of Moti Lal Nehru and Chittranjan Das, and the youth group formed a revolutionary party under the leadership of Bismil.
Another, important related to Bismil is Kakori Consipiracy, took place on August 9, 1925.
Bismil executed a meticulous plan for looting the government treasury carried in a train at Kakori, near Lucknow in U.P. Ten revolutionaries stopped the 8 Down Saharanpur-Lucknow passenger train at Kakori – a station just before the Lucknow Railway Junction.
Ashfaqulla Khan, the lieutenant of the HRA Chief Ram Prasad Bismil gave away his Mauser to Manmath Nath Gupta and engaged himself to break open the cash chest.
Eagerly watching a new weapon in his hand, Manmath Nath Gupta fired the pistol and accidentally shot and killed passenger Ahmed Ali, who had gotten down from the train to see his wife in the ladies compartment.
More than 40 revolutionaries arrested whereas only 10 persons had taken part in the decoity. Finally, on 16 September 1927, a final appeal for clemency forwarded to the Privy Council in London but that also failed.
Finally, after 18 months of legal process, related to Kakori consipiracy. Bismil, Ashfaqulla Khan, Roshan Singh and Rajendra Nath Lahiri sentenced to death.
Bismil hanged on 19 December 1927 at Gorakhpur Jail, Ashfaqulla Khan at the Faizabad Jail and Roshan Singh at Naini Allahabad Jail. Lahiri hanged two days earlier at Gonda Jail.
Bismil’s body was taken to the Rapti river for a Hindu cremation, and the site became known as Rajghat.
Shaheed Smarak Samiti of Shahjahanpur established a memorial at Khirni Bagh mohalla of Shahjahanpur city where Bismil was born in 1897 and named it “Amar Shaheed Ram Prasad Bismil Smarak”.
A statue made of white marble inaugurated by the Governor of Uttar Pradesh Motilal Vora on 18 December 1994 on the eve of the martyr’s 69th death anniversary. The Northern railway zone of Indian Railways built,
The Pt Ram Prasad Bismil railway station, 11 kilometres (6.8 mi) from Shahajahanpur.
There is a memorial to the Kakori conspiracists at Kakori itself inaugurated by the Prime Minister of India, Indira Gandhi, on 19 December 1983.
The government of Uttar Pradesh named a park after him: Amar Shaheed Pt. Ram Prasad Bismil Udyan, which is near Rampur Jagir village.
In fact, at this place Bismil lived underground after the Mainpuri conspiracy case in 1919.
Also, the Government of India issued a multi-coloured commemorative postal stamp on 19 December 1997 in Bismil’s birth centenary year
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